Sewage sludge is the mucky residue of municipal wastewater treatment operations, consisting largely of human feces. Repackaged as “biosolids,” sludge is sold or given away to farmers and homeowners for use as a nutrient-rich fertilizer.

But when used to grow food, our turds may bite back: sludge can contain heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, toxic chemicals, disease-causing bacteria (including e. coli and salmonella), viruses (hepatitis and polio), and parasites that can contaminate soil and potentially food crops. More than 330 synthetic chemical contaminants that have been detected in sludge are known or suspected toxins.

Läs mer… http://generationgreen.org/?p=745


Some European countries including Switzerland,2 the Netherlands,3 the United Kingdom4 and Germany5 prohibit or significantly limit sludge use on agricultural land.

Some companies, including Del Monte,6 General Mills7 and H.J. Heinz Company8 prohibit supplier use of sludge to grow produce. Consumers are encouraged to exercise caution and use the information provided here to make informed food and fertilizer choices.

Läs mer… http://www.iatp.org/iatp/publications.cfm?accountID=421&refID=104203


Regulatory agencies in U.S. and Europe have been advised to scientifically substantiate the selection and concentration limits of pollutants most critical to safe use of biosolids and the approved treatment processes for stabilization and disinfection of biosolids. This is a difficult task because, for example, over 330 organic compounds with known or suspected toxic effects have been detected in sewage.

Läs mer… http://www.environmental-expert.com/Files%5C9256%5Carticles%5C5809%5CRegulations.pdf


Dr. Unrine and his colleagues have shown that soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworms can absorb nanomaterials from the soil into their cells, providing a means for nanomaterials to enter food chains. This suggests a potential route of exposure for humans and other organisms.

Läs mer… http://www.nano.gov/html/research/Achievements_pdf/04-Env-Health-Safety-Toxicity/EvaluatingPotentialforMetalNanoparticlestoEnterFoodWebs-EPA.pdf


Due to the unique antibacterial activity of silver, manufacturers are incorporating silver nanoparticles into hundreds of widely available consumer products, such as food storage containers, detergents, clothing, cosmetics and medical appliances. Kim, Hochella, and collaborators have provided evidence that silver leaching from these products transforms into silver sulfide nanoparticles in wastewater treatment plants. Their findings are the first to detect nanoparticle in a field-scale study and are important in understanding the life-cycle of silver nanoparticles

Läs mer… http://www.ceint.duke.edu/


Millions of tons of sewage sludge are used to fertilize fields where your family's food is grown, parklands, athletic fields, and even playgrounds.

Sludge Field

Sludge is a toxic stew of not only human, waste, but everything else that goes down every drain. This site is intended to give you the information you need, whether you're learning about this issue for the first time or you've been fighting the use of sludge as a fertilizer for years. Our site offers hundreds of downloadable articles, videos, toolkit resources,

Läs mer… Join the United Sludge-Free Alliance


Even though maximal exposure values to limit chronic Cd toxicity may be reduced by legislation (CONTAM 2009), the unavoidable increase of the Cd body burden during life can only be reasonably approached by proper knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms at work in order to decrease uptake, accumulation, and to detoxify incorporated Cd. Indeed, the current understanding of the biological effects of Cd and the existing knowledge of Cd-induced diseases are mainly based on results obtained by exposure to high doses of the toxic metal with most obvious consequences. These data represent only “the tip of the iceberg” of Cd toxicity.

Läs mer… http://www.springerlink.com/content/g1718611w20l0pn0/fulltext.html


11 artiklar om kadmium från BioMetals (endast Abstracts är gratis):

Cadmium exposure in the population: from health risks to strategies of prevention

Tim S. Nawrot, Jan A. Staessen, Harry A. Roels, Elke Munters, Ann Cuypers, Tom Richart, Ann Ruttens, Karen Smeets, Herman Clijsters & Jaco Vangronsveld

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Heavy metal poisoning: the effects of cadmium on the kidney

Nikhil Johri, Grégory Jacquillet & Robert Unwin

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Early biomarkers of cadmium exposure and nephrotoxicity

Walter C. Prozialeck & Joshua R. Edwards

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Cadmium and cardiovascular diseases: cell biology, pathophysiology, and epidemiological relevance

Barbara Messner & David Bernhard

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Cadmium and transport of ions and substances across cell membranes and epithelia

Emmy Van Kerkhove, Valérie Pennemans & Quirine Swennen

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Catch me if you can! Novel aspects of cadmium transport in mammalian cells

Frank Thévenod

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Cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity related to the homeostasis of essential metals

Jean-Marc Moulis

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Role of metallothionein in cadmium traffic and toxicity in kidneys and other mammalian organs

Ivan Saboli?, Davorka Breljak, Mario Škarica & Carol M. Herak-Kramberger

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Cadmium stress: an oxidative challenge

Ann Cuypers, Michelle Plusquin, Tony Remans, Marijke Jozefczak, Els Keunen, Heidi Gielen, Kelly Opdenakker, Ambily Ravindran Nair, Elke Munters, Tom J. Artois, Tim Nawrot, Jaco Vangronsveld & Karen Smeets

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The oxidative stress: endoplasmic reticulum stress axis in cadmium toxicity

Masanori Kitamura & Nobuhiko Hiramatsu

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Mechanisms in cadmium-induced carcinogenicity: recent insights

Andrea Hartwig

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